Your A – Z Guide to Ewing’s Sarcoma

Your A – Z Guide to Ewing’s Sarcoma

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Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare form of cancerous disease that either grows in the bones or in the soft tissues present around the bones, such as the nerves or cartilage. It usually affects individuals between the ages of 10 to 20. This condition has a high rate of being cured if diagnosed early. However, it is only possible if you get yourself treated from the best cancer hospital in India, such as Max Healthcare, which is famous for its renowned team of doctors.

Types of Ewing’s Sarcoma

The type of Ewing’s sarcoma can be determined on the basis of the location of the tumour. In most cases, the tumor starts at the pelvis, followed by the femur (thigh bone). Irrespective of where it starts, it is possible for it to spread to various other bones or bone marrow, and even to other organs such as the kidneys, heart, and lungs. Some types of Ewing’s Sarcoma are:

  1. Bone Tumour: Most of the Ewing’s sarcoma cases occur in the bone, in places like the thigh bones, ribs, shoulder blades, or pelvis. However, it is possible for the tumour to originate in any bone.
  2. Soft Tissue Tumour: This tumour affects the soft tissues present around the bones, such as muscle or cartilage. However, soft tissue tumour is rarely found in the soft tissue of the abdomen, arms, legs, chest, head, and neck.
  3. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (PPNET): This type appears in the nerves and can also be found in many other body parts. Askin Tumour is a type of a PPNET tumour that is located in the chest.


Signs and symptoms of Ewing’s sarcoma include:

  • Bone pain, which may get worse at night or with physical activity
  • Pain, swelling or tenderness near the affected area
  • Fever with no known reason
  • Unexplained tiredness
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Broken bone with no known cause


It is uncertain what leads to Ewing’s sarcoma, as it does not appear to run in the genes. So far, it has been discovered that it is not related to exposure to chemicals, radiation, or any other environmental factors. Instead, it is believed that the cells’ DNA changes after birth, leading to this disease. However, the cause behind the DNA change still remains unknown. One possibility is that it could be second cancer (recurrence) in individuals who have been treated with radiation for any another cancer.


The kind of treatment a patient undergoes depend on various factors like:

  • Size of the tumour
  • Where it has spread (site)
  • The overall health of the patient
  • The patient’s preferences

Some of the most common treatment options for Ewing’s Sarcoma include:

  1. Chemotherapy: This is usually the first step wherein the cancer cells are killed and stopped from growing with the help of medicines. Usually, the medicines are injected into the bloodstream. Some doctors may use more than one kind of chemotherapy at a time or even combine it with radiation and surgery.
  2. Surgery: To stop a tumour from spreading, the doctor will try to remove the cancerous cells. In some cases, the doctor may even be required to amputate a leg or an arm if a tumour has spread beyond control.
  3. Radiation: X-rays and other types of radiation are used by a health specialist to kill the cancer cells. This can either be done using machines outside the body to deliver the dose or through needles and tubes sent right to the tumour.

After the treatment, the patient will still need to follow up with the health specialist for many years. Ewing’s sarcoma can return even a decade after the treatment. With time, the patient finds ways to handle the distress and uncertainty associated with cancer.